Powered by Blogger.

Usefull Links

Popular Posts

Local Anesthetics

Local anesthetics

Local anesthetics are compounds that prevent the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses near to the site of application or injection, resulting in a loss of sensation which is reversible.
Local anesthetics are most often used to produce a loss of pain without loss of consciousness; thus are also referred to as local analgesics.
Local Anesthetics

Ideal properties

  • Should be non-irritating.
  • Should have low toxicity.
  • Effective oral as well as intravenous.
  • Rapid onset of action and short duration of action.

Types of local anesthetics

Topical- Applied on the mucous membrane.
Infiltration- Injected into tissues.
Field block- Injected into the subcutaneous layer.
Nerve block- Injected into the peripheral nerve.
Spinal- Injected into CSF of lumber region.
Intravenous- Injected into nerve trunks and endings.
Epidural- Injected into epidural space.



Cocaine, Hexylcaine, Cyclomethylcaine

Synthetic nitrogenous agent

p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives- Procaine,  Benzocaine, Butamben, Butacaine
Anilides- Mepivacaine, Lidocaine, Bupivacaine
Quinoline derivatives- Cinchocaine, Dimethylisoquine

Synthetic non-nitrogenous agent

Benzoyl alcohol, Propanediol

Miscellaneous agent